Chapter XV. Forms
§337. Direct and Indirect Speech. Strictly speaking Coptic has no conception of Direct Speech as shown in Latin or English, but rather treats both Direct and Indirect Speech in the same way. Indeed it is often quite impossible to distinguish whether a statement or a question following a verb of saying, answering or ordering, is Direct or Indirect Speech. The conjunction `e is used to introduce both Direct and Indirect Speech: in the case of Direct Speech, `e is not translated but rather is equivalent to inverted commas or quotation marks; with Indirect Speech, `e may be rendered as ‘that’ in statements and ‘whether’ in questions; e.g. pe`a.3 na.u `e n.kotk.2e n.tetn.mton mmw.tn ‘He said to them: Sleep therefore and rest yourselves’ (Mt 26:45), a.3.ouw4b na.u `e a.i.ouw e.i.`w mmo.s nh.tn auw mpe.tn.swtm ‘He answered them: I have already told you (lit. I have ceased saying it to you) and you did not hear’ (Jn 9:27). Sometimes the verb of saying is omitted before `e; e.g. ntere.3.swtm `e t.galilaia ‘When he heard (them say): Galilee’ (Lk 23:6). `e introducing indirect speech is mostly found after verbs of sentient perception or declaration; e.g. ne.s.soun de an `e is pe ‘Yet she was not understanding that it was Jesus’ (Jn 20:14), e.tm.e.p.laau n.rwme `e 3.`a6m ‘Not to count any man that he is unclean’ (Acts 10:28), a.3.4ine `e ene.ou.galilaios pe prwme ‘He asked whether the man was a Galilean’ (Lk 23:6). Note: Occasionally `e- is found written `-; e.g. `.mpr.tre.[pei].nobe ei ebol n.toot.n ‘Do not let (this) sin come forth from us’ (Z 261.7).
§338. Coordination of Sentences. On the whole, Coptic preferred a series of short sentences rather than long involved sentences such as are common in Greek. Frequently a succession of short sentences appear without any connecting particles; e.g. ntere.3.tw6m de e.p.ro a.s.r.ouw a.s.ouwn na.3 a.3.4ine n.sa pes.eiwt ‘When he had knocked at the door, she replied; she opened (it) to him; he enquired after her father’ (Z 295.a.1). This type of asyndeton is also commonplace in the Semitic languages, although not characteristic of Greek. Continuity of verbal action in following sentences can be effected by means of the Conjunctive (§226). Not infrequently, the Conjunctive follows the Causative Infinitive; e.g. 6aps etre.3.bwk e.6rai e.q.ierosoluma n.3.4p.6a6 n.6ise ebol 6itn ne.presbuteros mn n.arxiereus mn ne.grammateus n.se.mouout mmo.3 n.3.twoun 6m.p.me6.4omnt n-.6oou ‘It is necessary for him to go up to Jerusalem; he will suffer much at the hands of the elders and the chief priests and the scribes; they will kill him; he will rise on the third day’ (Mt 16:21). For coordination by means of auw, cf §290.
§338a. Coptic freely incorporated many Greek Conjunctions (§288) in the language, especially in translations from Greek originals. Thus ALLA, DE, MEN, GE, GAR, OUDE, KAI, KAN, ETEI etc. appear in Coptic MSS.
§339. Commands and Prohibitions. These are expressed by means of the Imperative (§238-41) and its Negation (§242). When the person or persons addressed are in the 3rd person, and also when some stress is implied in the command or prohibition, the III Future (§217) and its negation (§218) are used.
§340. Wishes. Wishes are expressed by means of the Optative (§220); negative wishes by means of the Negation of the Optative (§221). When, however, the wish is more strongly expressed, the III Future (§217) or its Negation (§218) is used.
§341. Questions. Questions are expressed in three ways:
(1) In the form of a statement, the interrogative nature of the sentence being indicated by the tone of voice or the context.
(2) By means of an Interrogative Pronoun or Adverb.
(3) By means of an Interrogative Particle (§346).
§342. (1) Questions in the form of an ordinary statement, the interrogative sense being indicated in speech by the tone of voice, and in writing by the context; e.g. ntok pe p.sa6 m.p.ihl auw n.t.sooun an n.nai ‘Art thou the teacher of Israel, and dost thou not know these things?’ (Jn 3:10), k.na.ka tek.yuxh 6aro.i ‘Wilt thou lay down thy life for me?’ (Jn 13:38), a.u.`w mmo.s `e tai te noemein ‘They said: Is this Naomi?’ (Ruth 1:19; cf §191)
§343. (2) Questions containing an Interrogative Pronoun or Adverb. These sentences can be divided into two groups: (a) Questions in which the Interrogative Pronoun stands at the beginning of the sentence. (b) Questions in which the Interrogative Pronoun and Adverb stand after the verb:
§344. (a) The following interrogatives stand at the beginning of the sentence: a4, nim, a6ro=, etbe.ou, ouhr; ou ‘What?’ can stand at the beginning of the sentence, but is more frequently found after the verb. The First Tenses of the Auxiliaries are usually employed after these interrogatives, as they already stand in the place of greatest stress.
(i) a4 ‘who?, what?, which?’ can be used as a substantive, especially in Non-Verbal Sentences; e.g. a4 te q.e ‘Which is the way?’ (Z 298.b.1), a4 gar pet.motn e.`oo.s pe ‘For which is easier to say?’ (Mk 2:9). When a4 is used adjectivally it is linked to its noun by n; e.g. a4 n.ran ‘Which name?’, n.a4 n.6e k.na.`oo.s m.pek.son ‘How (lit. In what way) wilt thou say to thy brother?’ (Lk 6:42), ou.a4 m.mine.2e nto3 pe pai ‘(A) what kind (of man) therefore is this (one)?’ (Mk 4:41). Note: Occasionally a4 has the meaning of ‘a certain’ ; e.g. 6n a4 n.5me ‘In a certain town’.
(ii) nim ‘who?, what?, which?’ is used in the same way as a4, with which it is often interchangeable. It is more commonly used with persons; e.g. nim ntooun net.na.wn6 ‘Who then (are) those who will live?’ (Lk 18:26), nim n.rwme ebol n.6ht.thutn ‘Which man of you?’ (Lk 15:4). Note: In Non-Verbal Sentences containing an Independent Pronoun, nim follows the pronoun; e.g. nte nim nto ‘Who art thou?’ (Ruth 3:9).
(iii) a6ro= ‘why?’ , must always take a suffix pronoun referring to the subject of the question (it represents Greek ti or ina ti); e.g. a6ro.k k.4a`e nmma.s ‘Why art thou speaking with her?’ (Jn 4:27), a6rw.tn tetn.moute ero.i `e p.`oeis ‘Why do you call me Lord?’ (Lk 6:46).
(iv) etbe-ou ‘why?’ (lit. Concerning what?) as a substantive; e.g. etbe.ou a.u.take pai ‘Why did they destroy this?’ (Mt 26:8), etbe.ou mpe.tn.nt.3 ‘Why have you not brought him?’ (Jn 7:45). Note: etbe.ou n.6wb (lit. concerning what thing?) usually follows the verb, which shows a Second Tense; e.g. e.tet.na.ei nmma.i etbe.ou n.6wb ‘For what purpose will you come with me?’ (Ruth 1:11), a.s.tamo.3 `e nta.s.`w6 ero.3 etbe.ou n.6wb ‘She showed him for what purpose she touched him’ (Lk 8:47).
(v) ouhr ‘how much/many?’ is used adjectivally and is linked to its noun by n; e.g. oun ouhr n.oeik nte.teutn ‘How many loaves have you?’ (Mt 15:34), eis ouhr m.rompe 5.askei ‘Lo, how many years do I practice self discipline?’ (Z 317.23).
(vi) aouhr ‘about how much/many?’ ; e.g. eis aouhr n.6oou n.`int a.u.3it.ou ‘Lo, about how many days since they carried them off?’ (Mor. 587.f.100v).
(vii) ou ‘what?’ is mostly used as a substantive (§345b.i), and less frequently stands at the beginning of the sentence; e.g. ou pe p.maein ‘What is the sign?’ (Lk 21:7).
§345. (b) The following interrogatives stand after the verb, which shows a Second Tense (§186b.2):
(i) ou ‘what?’ (see §344a.vii); e.g. ere.p.`oeis 2e ... na.r ou na.u ‘What therefore will the Lord ... do to them?’ (Lk 20:15), e.tetn.r.ou n.nei.bir ‘What are you doing with these baskets?’ (Z 300.d.3).
(ii) twn ‘Where?, whence?’ ; e.g. e.u.na.`po m.pe.xs twn ‘Where will Christ be born?’ (lit. Where will they bring forth the Christ?; Mt 2:4), e.n.na.4p.oeik twn ‘Where shall we buy bread?’ (Jn 6:5), nta.3.6e 2e e.n.th2 twn ‘Whence found it tares?’ (Mt 13:27). When the Subject is Nominal, twn is prefaced by the pronominal form of the Second Tense of the Present Auxiliary (§37), and the nominal subject follows without an introductory particle; e.g. e.3.twn p.rro n.n.ioudai ‘Where is the King of the Jews?’ (Mt 2:2).
(iii) e.twn ‘whither?’ ; e.g. ere.pai na.bwk e.twn ‘Whither will this man go?’ (Jn 7:35).
(iv) ebol.twn ‘whence?’ is mostly found with the Indefinite Article prefixed to form a substantive; e.g. ou.ebol.twn te tei.sofia ‘Whence is this wisdom?’
(v) tnau ‘when?’ and its compound 4a.tnau ‘until when?’ ; e.g. ere.nai na.4wpe tnau ‘When will these things happen?’ (Lk 21:7). Note: 4a.tnau can stand at the beginning of the sentence, in which case the auxiliary shows a First Tense; e.g. 4a.tnau k.3i m.pen.6ht ‘Until when art thou holding us in suspense (lit. taking our heart)?’ (Jn 10:24), 4a.tnau p.noute p.`a`e no2ne2 ‘Until when, O Lord, does the enemy mock?’ (Ps 74:10).
§346. (3) Questions introduced by an Interrogative Particle:
(i) ene- (occasionally en-) stands at the beginning of the sentence, usually before the Subject, which often receives some stress in consequence; e.g. pe`a.3 m.p.xiliarxos `e ene.sto na.i etra.`e (§357) ou.4a`e ero.k nto3 de pe`a.3 `e ene.k.sooun m.mnt.oueienin ‘He says to the Chiliarch: Is it permitted to me to speak a word with thee? He said: Dost thou understand Greek?’ (Acts 21:37), ene.tare.n.ouw6 e.toot.n e.bwk ebol e.mi4e mn.beniamin ‘Are we to set ourselves to go out to fight with Benjamin?’ (Jud 20:28). ene- may be used before a Non-Verbal Sentence to stress the Predicate; e.g. ene.ou.galilaios pe p.rwme ‘Is the man a Galilean?’ (Lk 23:6). Likewise the stress may fall upon an adverbial phrase of time standing at the beginning of the sentence; e.g. en 6rai 6m.pei.ouoei4 k.na.5 n.t.mnt.ero m.p.ihl ‘Is it at this time thou wilt give the kingdom to Israel?’ (Acts 1:6).
(ii) eie- (eeie-) introduces a question to which no definite answer is required. Its function is similar to the Greek ara, so that ara is frequently used instead. eie- is often found at the beginning of the apodosis of a Conditional Sentence, with the meaning of ‘Surely, then of course’ (§376); e.g. eie p.moou nhu on 6m.pe3.ouoei4 ‘Is the flood to come again in his time?’ (Z 347.16), eie ntok an 2e p.rm.n.khme ‘Art thou not therefore the Egyptian?’ (Acts 21:38), ara e.3.e.san4 n.ou.5me ‘Shall he nourish a village?’ (Z 340.5). Note: ara sometimes appears at the beginning of a question with another interrogative; e.g. ara a4 pe p.6wb n.nai ‘What is the work of these?’ (Z 344.17).
(iii) mh , sometimes mht(e)i , is used in questions to which a negative answer is expected; e.g. mh oun.laau n.tbt nte.thutn ‘Have you any fish?’ (Jn 21:5), mhti anok pe ‘Is it I?’ (Mt 26:22). If the question already contains a negative, an affirmative answer is expected (cf Latin nonne); e.g. mh n.s.na.`ere p.6hbs an ‘Will she not light the lamp?’ (Lk 15:8), mh oun.4.2om n.ou.blle e.`i.moeit 6ht.3 n.ou.blle mh n.se.na.6e an e.u.6ieit m.pe.snau ‘Is it possible for a blind man to lead a blind man?’ [Expects the answer ‘No’] ‘Will they not both fall into a ditch?[Expects the answer ‘Yes’]’ (Lk 6:39).
§347. Double Questions. (i) `n- (`en-) [in bad MSS `in-] is used to link two questions; e.g. ntok pet.nhu `n e.n.na.2w4t 6ht.3 n.ke.oua ‘Art thou he who is about to come, or is it for another we shall look?’ (Lk 7:20), `e p.`oeis e.k.`w na.n n.tei.parabolh `en e.k.`w mmo.s e.ouon nim ‘(Peter said to him:) Lord, art thou saying this parable to us, or art thou saying it to everyone?’ (Lk 12:41).
(ii) `n.mmon ‘or not’ ; e.g. ecesti e.5.khnsos m.p.rro `n.mmon (other MSS `n.ouk ecesti) ‘Is it lawful to give tribute to the king or not?’ (Mk 12:14).
§348. Questions are answered in the affirmative by e6e or se ‘Yes, verily’ , and in the negative by mmon ‘No’, mpwr ‘By no means’ (§297); mpe is used to deny questions relating to past events; e.g. pe`a.u na.3 `e e6e p.`oeis ‘They say to him: Yes, Lord’ (Mt 13:51), pe`a.i na.u `e se ‘I say to them: Yes’ (Z 347.17), a.u.ouw4b na.u `e mmon ‘They answered him: No’ (Jn 21:5), mh a.tetn.4wpe n.at.laau nto.ou de pe`a.u `e mpe ‘Were you without anything? They say: No’ (Lk 22:35).
§349. Indirect Questions. As in the case of the Indirect Statement (§337), it is often difficult to decide if a question is in fact direct or indirect; e.g. ma`ne n.ent.a.u.swtm `e ou n.ent.a.i.`oo.u na.u ‘Ask those who heard what were the things I said to them’ (Jn 18:21; §360). Note: This construction is usual after sooun ‘To understand’ in order to amplify the Object; e.g. pai tn.sooun mmo.3 `e ou.ebwl.twn pe ‘This one we know (of him) whence he is’ (Jn 7:27), a.3.souwn.3 `e nim pe ‘He knew (him) who he was’ (Z 304.g.3).
§350. Relative Clauses. The relative clause plays an extremely important part in Coptic, for by means of it the deficiency in adjectives and the lack of the participle are made good.
Relative clauses can be divided into two main types:
(1) With undefined antecedent.
(2) With defined antecedent.
A subdivision of both these types must further be made:
(a) When the antecedent is also the subject of the relative clause.
(b) When the antecedent is not the subject of the relative clause.
§351. (1) Relative Clauses with Undefined Antecedent: When the antecedent is without the article, or has the indefinite article, the relative clause is introduced by the Circumstantial Tense or a compound tense prefixed by e- (§231); e.g. ou.polis e.sta.`rhu ‘A city which is strong’ (Ps 30:22), 6en.et.pw e.u.6or4 ‘Burdens which are heavy’ (Mt 23:4), ne.3.gramateus pe e.4a.3.s6ai n.sa pe.souo ‘He was a scribe who used to keep account of the corn’ (Z 350.d.1), ou.stasis e.a.s.4wpe 6n.t.polis ‘An insurrection which had happened in the city’ (Lk 23:19), mmn.6m6al e.naa.3 e.ne3.`oeis ‘There is not (a) servant who is greater than his Lord’ (Jn 15:20).
§352. When the relative clause is non-verbal, the usage is noted in §197a.n.
(a) ere- is used when the subject of the relative clause is nominal and differs from the antecedent and the predicate is adverbial (§301ff); e.g. ou.rwme ere.ou.4o4ou m.moou 6i`w.3 ‘A man upon whom is a pitcher of water’ (Mk 14:13), ou.4eere ... ere.ou.pna n.akaqarton nmma.s ‘A daughter ... in whom was an unclean spirit’ (Mk 7:25).
(b) e- is used before non-verbal clauses of the 2nd group (§306ff); e.g. ne.un ou.rwme de n.rm.mao e.pe3.ran pe nineuh ‘There was a rich man whose name was Nineve [sic]’ (Lk 16:19), eis ou.s6ime ... e.u.re3.r.nobe te ‘Lo, a woman ... who (was) a sinner’ (Lk 7:37).
§353. When the antecedent is not the subject of the relative clause, it must be referred back to by means of a resumptive pronoun. This rule applies equally when the antecedent is defined (but cf §364 for an exception to this rule); e.g. ou.ma e.u.moute ero.3 `e liqostrwton ‘A place which they call it: Lithostraton’ (Jn 19:13), ne.un ou.rwme de mmau ere.te3.2i` 4ouwou (§233 & 233n) ‘There was a man there whose hand was dried (lit. a man who his hand is dried)’ (Mk 3:1), a.3.smine n.ou.6oou e.3.na.krine n.6ht.3 n.t.oikoumenh ‘He has appointed a day on which he will judge the world (lit. a day which he will judge in it the world)’ (Acts 17:31).
§354. Negation of relative clauses with Undefined Antecedent. e- is prefixed to the negative particle n- (§198) or to the negative auxiliary; e.g. 6n.ou.6oou e.n.3.sooun mmo.3 an auw 6n.ou.ounou e.n.3.eime ero.s an ‘In a day which he does not understand and in an hour which he does not perceive’ (Lk 12:46), ou.sate e.me.sw4m ‘A fire which is not wont to be quenched’ (Mt 3:12; §205), ou.no2 n.qliyis e.mpe.ouon n.te.s6h 4wpe `in te.6oueite m.p.kosmos ‘A great tribulation, the like of which has not happened since the beginning of the world’ (Mt 24:21), ou.tafos n.brre e.mpat.ou.ka.laau n.6oun n.6ht.3 ‘A new tomb in which they had not yet laid anyone’ (Jn 19:41; §222). Note: Sometimes, in badly written MSS, e- is omitted before a sonant consonant; e.g. ou.sno3 mpw.3 (for e.mpw.3) an pe ‘A blood which is not his own’ (Heb 9:25).
§355. (2) Relative Clauses with Defined Antecedent: When the antecedent is defined, the particle et- is used to link the relative clause to the word it qualifies. The relative clause follows the construction of an ordinary statement, the particle et- indicating its syntactical function.
§356. et- is used to introduce the relative clauses making an affirmative statement when the subject of the relative clause is the same as the antecedent. Note: This rule does not apply in the case of affirmative statements which contain the Imperfect or Tense of Habitude (§359), or the Perfect tense (§360). The use of et- and the Qualitative is particularly common in forming the equivalent of adjectives or participles; e.g. p.pna et.ouaab ‘The Holy Spirit’ (lit. The Spirit who [is] Holy), p.4hn et.rht 6i`n m.ma n-.6ate ‘The tree sprouting beside the water channels’ (Ps 1:3).
(a) et-Present Tense; e.g. naiat.ou n.n.bal et.nau ‘Blessed (are) the eyes which see’ (Lk 10:23).
(b) et-Future Tense; e.g. pai et.na.moone m.pa.laos ‘This one who will shepherd my people’ (Mt 2:6).
(c) et-Old Conjugation (§180); e.g. p.mhh4e et.na4w.3 ‘The crowd which was much’ (Lk 7:11).
(d) et-Adverbial Phrase; e.g. p.koui et.n.6ht.ou ‘The little one who (is) in their midst’ (Lk 15:12), et.mmau ‘That one’ (§54).
§357. When the subject of the relative clause differs from the antecedent, the subject, if nominal, is prefixed by the form etere-. Reference to the antecedent is made by means of a resumptive pronoun (§353); e.g. is pai etere.paulos kurisce mmo.3 ‘Jesus, this one whom Paul preaches him’ (Acts 19:13), m.p.ma etere.ne3.maqhths soou6 n.6ht.3 ‘In the place in which his disciples are gathering together’ (Jn 20:19), p.ma gar etere.pek.a6o na.4wpe n.6ht.3 ‘For the place in which thy treasure will be’ (Mt 6:21).
§358. But, when the subject of the relative clause is Pronominal , the following forms are used:
It should be noted that
the Present Relative, like the Durative tenses, cannot take a direct object
an exception is noted in
‘This one concerning whom I hear
these things’ (Lk
‘The company which they call: the
Italian’ (Acts 10:1),
‘The bread which I shall give’
§359. When the relative clause contains either the Durative Imperfect (§194) or the Limitative Tense of Habitude (§204), the same form is used after the defined antecedent as after the undefined antecedent (§351); e.g. p.ma enere.p.4hre 4hm n.6ht.3 ‘The place where the young child was’ (Mt 2:9), p.4oei4 e.4are.p.thu qlo.3 ebol ‘The dust which the wind is wont to scatter’ (Ps 1:4). Note: ete.4are- is sometimes found; e.g. te.skhnh ... ete.4a.u moute ero.s `e pet.ouaab n.net.ouaab ‘The tent ... which they are wont to call: The Holy of the Holies’ (Heb 9:3).
§360. Before the Perfect Tense, the Relative Particle appears as ent- (thus ent.a-, etc.), less correctly written nt-. However, it is occasionally written et-, which is the regular form in Bohairic; e.g. anok pe p.oeik et.on6 ent.a.3.ei ebol 6n.t.pe ‘I Am the living bread which has come down from heaven’ (Jn 6:51), pa.esoou nt.a.3.swrm ‘My sheep which has gone astray’ (Lk 15:6), p.rwme de ent.a.n.daimonion ei ebol n.6ht.3 ‘The man out of whom the demons came’ (Lk 8:38).
§361. When the relative clause contains a negative statement, the Negative Particle n- or the Negative Auxiliaries mpe- and mere- (§199a) are prefaced by the verbal prefix e-; e.g. p.`ai.beke ete.n.ou.4ws an pe pai ete.n.nou.3 an ne ne.soou ‘The hireling who is not a shepherd, this one whose own the sheep are not’ (Jn 10:12), 4hn.2e nim ete.n.3.na.taue karpos an ‘Every tree therefore which will not bring forth fruit’ (Mt 7:19), ne.6bhte ... ete.mpe.ke.oua aa.u ‘The works ... which another has not done’ (Jn 15:24), n.eidwlon ete.me.u.4a`e ‘The idols which are not wont to speak’ (I-Cor 12:2). Note 1: Sometimes, particularly after pai ‘this one’, the relative particle et- falls away before the negative, and a form exactly the same as that used after the undefined antecedent follows; e.g. pai e.n.3.me an m.pe3.son ‘This one who does not love his brother’ (I-Jn 3:14), pai e.n.5.mp.4a an n.3i 6a.pe3.tooue ‘This one whose shoe I am not worthy to bear’ (Mt 3:11). Note 2: Occasionally ete.mpe- is used in an interrogative sense; e.g. ete.mp.ou.swtm ‘Did they not hear?’ (Rom 10:18), ete.mpe.p.israhl (variant reading e.ne.m-pe.p.ihl) eime ‘Did Israel not perceive?’ (ibid., verse 19).
§362. The same construction, ete- , holds good (a) when the relative clause contains the impersonal existential verbs oun- or (m)mn- (§184); e.g. t.pugh m.moou ete.p.swma pe mn.pes.no3 m.p.`oeis ‘The fountain of water which is the body with his blood of the Lord’ (Z 320.a.4).
§363. Or (b) when the relative clause contains a Non-Verbal sentence of the Second Group (i.e. containing pe, te or ne; §306); e.g. t.pugh m.moou ete.p.swma pe mn.pes.no3 m.p.`oeis ‘The fountain of water which is the body with his blood of the Lord’ (Z 320.a.4).
§364. Remarks on the Relative Clause. The resumptive pronoun is omitted when the antecedent is an adverbial expression of time, place or manner; e.g. `in p.nau de nta.i.`i n.ta.s6ime ‘Since the hour in which I took my wife’ (Z 346.b.18), a.3.ei.2e on e.t.kana ... p.ma enta.3.tre.p.moou r.hrp ‘He came therefore again to Cana,... the place in which he caused the water to be made wine’ (Jn 4:46), kata q.e nta.3.5.sbw nh.tn ‘According to the way in which he has instructed you’ (I-Jn 2:26).
§365. When a defined antecedent is qualified by several consecutive relative clauses, as a rule only the first relative clause is prefaced by the particle et-; e.g. naiat.3 m.p.rwme et.e.mp.3.bwk 6m.p.4o`ne n.n.asebhs e.mt.3.a6erat.3 6i te.6ih n.n.re3.r.nobe e.mp.3.6moos 6i t.kaqedra n.n.loimos ‘Blessed is the man who has not gone in the counsel of the wicked, who has not stood in the way of sinners, who has not sat in the seat of the scornful’ (Ps 1:1).
§366. It is to be noted that when the Relative Clause was used in a descriptive sense, the following constructions were employed:
(1) The antecedent is undefined and the Relative Clause in introduced by et-, equivalent to ‘namely, viz.’ (§294.6.a); e.g. 6en.sa6 et.e.barnabas pe mn.shmewn ‘Teachers, namely Barnabas and Simeon’ (Acts 13:1).
(2) The antecedent is either defined or undefined, and the pronouns pai, tai, nai are inserted between the antecedent and the Relative Clause; e.g. mh nto.k naa.k e.pen.eiwt iakwb pai ent.a.3.5 na.n n.t.4wte ‘Art thou greater than our father Jacob, this one who gave us the well?’ (Jn 4:12), t.magdalhnh tai ent.a.sa43 n.daimonion ei ebol n.6ht.s ‘The Magdalene, this one out of whom came forth seven devils’ (Lk 8:2), ou.rwme n.rm.mao pai ent.a.3.ei ebol e.6tooue e.qne n.ergaths ‘A rich man, this one who came out at morning to hire workers’ (Mt 20:1).
§367. When the relative clause is preceded by a non-verbal sentence containing pe, te, ne, contraction with et- usually occurs:
Though this form is morphologically identical with
the relative substantive
it can be distinguished from it by reference to the preceding sentence which
must be non-verbal;
‘Who is it who is speaking to
thee?’ (Jn 4:10),
‘These are those
which I am ordering you’
§368. The Relative Substantive. By prefixing the definite article, the relative clause can become the equivalent of a substantive; e.g. pet.mmau ‘That one’, pet.4ine ‘The seeker’ (lit. The [one] who seeks), pet.e.n.3.me an mmo.i ‘The one who does not love me’ (Jn 14:24), pet.k.na.mor.3 6i `m.p.ka6 ‘That which thou wilt bind on earth’ (Mt 16:19). As a substantive it can be used as a subject, object or adverb of a sentence; e.g. peq.bbio de mmo.3 se.na.`ast.3 ‘The one who humbles himself will be exalted’ (Lk 18:14), 5.5.m-.p.re.mht n.ne5.`po mmo.ou thr.ou ‘I give the tenth of all that I acquire’ (Lk 18:12), e.r.pe5.oua4.3 6n.net.e.nou.i ne ‘To do what I wish with mine own’ (Mt 20:15). Long usage made some relative substantives equivalent to undefined nouns; e.g. peq.oou (pet.6oou) ‘The evil’, pet.nanou.3 ‘The good’; e.g. a.alecandros f.am.klle r.6a6 na.i m.peq.oou ‘Alexander the smith did me much evil’ (II-Tim 4:14). These substantives, although in fact they already possessed the Definite Article, could take a second Article, Definite or Indefinite, or could prefix the Possessive Adjective; e.g. p.pet.ouaab ‘The holy one, the saint’ (lit. The the-one-who holy), a.u.twwbe na.i n.6en.peq.oou e.p.ma n.6en.pet.nanou.ou ‘They requite to me evil instead of good’ (Ps 34:12), pek.pet.ouaab ‘Thy holy one’ (Ps 16:10).